Paulo de Souza, CSIRO
It's touchdowns again on Mars, thanks to NASA's probe Insight. Print Will Continue Our latest mission of exploration That is still much unknown about the-planet.
As Seen From Earth, the-the-night big red dot in-the-sky Has certainly caught attention of human Started Since we contemplating the-Universe.
The first observations With telescopes Gave us a much Clearer picture of Mars, With The poles covered in ice and different tones of red and black in-the-tropics.
NASA's Insight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigation, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission shouldnt tell us more about-the interior of Mars-the planet formed and how.
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Beware of Martians
Perhaps-the curious account of Mars must CCD board from The Italian astronomers Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1877. He Observed a dense network of linear structures are on the surface of Mars Which he called "canali" in Italian, meaning "channels".
But-the term Was misinterpreted by some English speakers as "Canals", Which Implied They were made by Martians.
Our love and FEAR Another Relationship With Mars escalated to a level in 1938, whens Orson Welles broadcast-too-real for an adaption of HG Wells' classic The War of the World.
The Halloween night broadcast of-the Invasion of Martians to Earth apparently lead some listeners to Panic in-the United States, as They tooks the-fiction as a fact (a story told in-the 1975 movie, The Night That panicked America). Panic how much the still open to question.
HG Wells' 1898 NOVEL INSPIRED Has More Than a FEW Hollywood movies, television series and a musical Telling Since then, includingï¼ Steven Spielberg's 2005 movie War Of The Worlds.
Mars close up
The first close-up images From Mars CCD board in 1965 With The Mariner 4 spacecraft flying by the-planet, and THENI With Mariner 9 Entering orbit in 1971.
Both spacecraft showed Mars as a cold, barren, desert-like world. Before we thought-only Seen These Missions Mars through telescopes, And The question of WHETHER Was the-planet habitable (or inhabited) Was still open.
I still remember whens I was a child Watching a TV program Showing images of-the Viking mission bins Which two probes on Mars in 1976.
INSTEAD of talking about Our first Successful spacecraft to land on Mars and sending us images and Scientific data from The surface of Another planet, the-program talked for a long time about a feature That looked like a face of a with are on the surface of Mars, That resembled structures and Pyramid.
Thoses images certainly Affected me, and were key in my fascination for Mars and space in general.
The legacy of-the Viking LANDERS Was Mostly their first geochemical characterization from The surface, and a detailed analysis From Mars Atmospheric composition.
Results were fantastic Viking in MANY Ways, pocket too disappointing They indicated as a dry planet, full of rocks That would have transformed their primary Into Minerals currently Was ow water.
Pictures from The surface showed no signs of life – no signs of little bushes, a bit of moss on some rocks, or with a green Smiling to-the-cameras.
In a way we Our lost-interest for Mars meteorites With Until it attacked us.
Rocks From Mars
Rocks From Planets and the Moon, and meteors, wherein They hold of chemical Hint From CCD board. So it's POSSIBLE to tell ow From a meteorite is our Moon, From Mars, or From Elsewhere.
A meteorite found in Antarctica (dubbed ALH84001) That the one CCD board Scientists AFFIRM From Mars.
Martian meteorites found on Earth Can Be a big meteorite probably because Fell on Mars, and in-the-process ended up ejecting pieces of the-surface Into space.
Some were big Enough to our Atmosphere and enter 'BE found later. Mostly made of the ALH84001 carbonate: That a mineral water NEEDS To Be formed. Therefore, we can conclude indirectly That Mars Was Once wet.
To make it even more Interesting, Print Martian postcard That Has some miniscule structures look like some bacteria found on Earth.
Scientists are still debating thoses structures are Martian fossils WHETHER or not. But-the discovery and analysis of ALH84001 brought` us back to Mars. Was now the time for us to counterattack.
Rover Missions to Mars
NASA announced THENI-the first mission to Mars called Pathfinder Rover. The microwave oven sized including carried the Rover, called Sojourner, bins on Mars in 1997.
The Rover Produced Results Quite SIMILAR to thoses found by Viking, pointing to a very dry past and currently on Mars. What followed Was a considerable effort to get more images of Martian surface From-the orbiters, and select the-future With payloads place to land.
More Than 174 Potential debating an after landing sites, Scientists and Engineers Involved With Mars Research and They Discussed to two places to land on Mars WITH TWO Large rovers: Spirit and Opportunity.
An after seven months of interplanetary travel, rovers-the bins in January 2004. The Initial Results were obtained by Spirit to thoses SIMILAR From Viking and Mars Pathfinder.
The first groundbreaking CCD board Results From Opportunity With The discovery of jarosite and hematite: Minerals That two water and acidic conditions In NEED To Be formed.
Beyond an after working their way manufacturein Warranty (three months), transformed-the twin rovers Our Knowledge about-the-past of Mars.
Before we bins theres Was-the question of WHETHER Mars Was Once wet. Now we know That theres Once were oceans on Mars as salty as-the Dead Sea, plus theres were hot springs and fresh water streams.
Discovered: Huge water lake beneath a liquid-the southern pole of Mars
Water on Mars wasnt currently-only, pocket theres Was it in different Forms. Mars thought conditions In perfect for long Enough for life to form and Evolve. At least-we can say Was Mars habitable.
Was active for six-years Spirit and Opportunity, an after 15-years, the officially still going on.
During this time a Phoenix Lander called Green Valley of-the bins in Castitas Borealis are on the Martian northern HEMISPHERE, near-the north pole. The key discovery From Phoenix Was the-minute Presence of Concentrations of perchlorate, a salt POWERFUL bacterial killer.
These impact-the Despites Our Missions have in understanding about Mars, there were a number of instruments we would love to use technologies and Could not long in a Rover.
The idea of Martian Having a fully equipped laboratory to Scientists fueled proposes a new mission: Mars Science Laboratory With a much Larger Rover. It's equipped With laser beams Able to analyze rocks at distance, rock grinders and analyzers Able to Provide a more detailed characterization of Mars rocks, Soil and Atmosphere.
ALSO Perchlorates were found by-the Curiosity Rover, from The Mars Science Laboratory mission, and ALSO on a Martian meteorite called EETA79001 Which Suggest a global distribution of bacterial killer These salts.
A new Insight to Mars
The past 50-years were full of discoveries about Mars's surface, little pocket becomes known about the inner core budgets or subsoil. Print the mission wherein the-Insight That is about to land on Mars Comes in to play.
It's Supported by NASA's Deep Space Network, includingï¼ Our station in Canberra on Which the NASA Behalf managed by CSIRO. Insight's team hope to Learn how-the deep interior of Mars Was formed, and how SIMILAR They would be to Suchi Other rocky worlds as Venus, Mercury, Our Moon, Earth, exoplanets or thoses From Other solar systems.
Print the mission-the first That is Designed to investigate deep inside of Mars. Insight Has a temperature probe seismometers and budgets as part of payload.
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Will Be The future dominated by a sample return Missions: thoses Able to land spacecraft on Mars and bring samples back to Earth (SIMILAR to Russian What did on the Moon) and by Our effort to have their own astronauts on Mars Exploring Feet.
We do not yet have the-technology Required to Make That Happen. An idea-the challenge ahead of the captured by-the CSIRO Space Industry Roadmap, Which of-the outlines some key technologies needed for future exploration Contributions That And The unique Australian companies and Universities That Could Offer in pursuit
The quest for understanding-the evolution of Our Solar System Continue and I am still confronted by a Large number of questions without an answer. Will Provide Insight Hopefully some of thoses ANSWERS pocket there's the still much to Learn About What Lies ABOVES us on Mars, the-fourth planet out from The Sun.
Paulo de Souza, Science Leader – Cybernetics, CSIRO
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