Sunday , December 5 2021

As climate change confused by the ancient life – and because it can & # 39; re & # 39; place – GeekWire


Permian Extinction, Triassika
The conception & # 39; artist shows the desolation caused by Permian-Triassic extinction more than 250 million years ago. (Illustration LPI / USRA)

Scientists say that the rapid warm oceans played a key role in the largest mass extinction in the world, 252 million years ago, and may indicate risks confronting f & # 39; era & # 39; change climate b & # 39; similarly.

The latest studies, published in the issue & # 39; this week's Science journal, combining computer modeling of ancient ocean conditions and a close look at the species features to new pieces fit in & # 39; cheating that has been going on: S & # 39; were factors behind the massive Permian extinction, Triassika, also known as the Great Death?

The next Permian-Triassic has the & # 39; extinction that killed the dinosaurs nearly 190 million years after the event. About 70 percent of the land-based species are extinct, but the toll was even higher in the World seas. It is estimated that 96 percent of marine species have been cleaned.

One key factor was spray & # 39; volcanic eruptions in & # 39; a region known as Siberian Traps, which contributed to an increase in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases. What contributed to runaway warming in the oceans also, probably partly fueled by the release of & # 39; bottom methane.

To tease the impact of & # 39; heating the oceans on ancient species, team & # 39; Researchers from the University & # 39; and Washington University & # 39; Stanford made computer models of conditions & # 39; ocean and metabolism & # 39; Animal and check the results against the features seen in the old as well as in fossil species & # 39; day.

"This is the first time we mechanistic predictions about what caused the extinction can & # 39; to be tested directly with the record of fossils, which in turn allows us to make predictions about the causes & # 39; extinction in future ", described the author Justin Penn, student & # 39; UW doctorate in oceanography, said in a press release.

The computer modeling showed that warmer oceans have lost about 80 percent of their oxygen. About half of the sea water, the most f & # 39; deeper in depth, became completely free from oxygen.

S & # 39; effect those conditions have on marine species? Penn and his colleagues began by comparing the old conditions with the features of & # 39; 61 modern marine species parallel creatures from the Permian era, ranging from coral to sharks.

They found that the effect of reducing & # 39; oxygen were addressing the biggest jump & # 39; species sit & # 39; away from the tropics. The species had the best chance of & # 39; survival were those who could change their habitat closer to the equator.

"Very few marine organisms remained in the same habitats living in them – was either escape or imiet," said co-author & # 39; study Curtis Deutsch, associate professor & # 39; the UW oceanography.

To check the findings, Jonathan Payne of AOD Erik Sperling & # 39; Stanford analyzed distribution & # 39; species in the late Permian era, as documented by Paleoceanography database, a virtual archive & # 39; published fossil collections. The analysis confirmed that the species habitats & # 39; high latitudes suffered the most.

Penn said that the geographical pattern and computer modeling indicate the mechanism & # 39; "kill" the Permian species. "The agreement between the two indicates that the heating mechanism of the climate and loss of & # 39; oxygen was the primary cause of & # 39; extinction," he said.

This illustration shows the percentage of & # 39; marine animals that went extinct at the end of & # 39; the Permian era under latitude, from computer models (black line) and the fossil record (blue dots). greater percentage of & # 39; marine animals survived in the tropics than at the poles. The color & # 39; water shows the temperature change, from bright yellow to moderate yellow green. (University & # 39; Washington Illustration / Justin Penn and Curtis Deutsch, fossil drawings by Ernst Haeckel, Wendy Kaveney, Hans-Petter Fjeld and John White)

The findings are also consistent with & # 39; scenario Deutsch previously set for extinction, where the warming oceans led to an increase in animal metabolism at the same time that oxygen levels needed to bring this mechanism have been declining. That scenario adds & # 39; bad news for species & # 39; high latitude.

"Since the metabolism of & # 39; tropical organisms have already adapted to quite hot conditions and & # 39; low oxygen, they could go beyond the tropics and find the same conditions x & # 39; elsewhere ", explained Deutsch. "But if an organism has been adapted to a cold environment rich in oxygen, then those conditions no longer exist in the shallow oceans."

The computer models suggest that the conditions of & # 39; low oxygen representing more than half the Permian-Triassiku loss of diversity of marine species. The researchers say that the rest of & # 39; effect can & # 39; be explained by other factors, such as acidification & # 39; oceans and the rise and decline of & # 39; photosynthetic organisms.

Penn noted that the patterns can be applied to future ocean conditions and the conditions of the past, b & # 39; disturbing results.

"Under scenario & # 39; business emissions as usual, by 2100, warming in the ocean & # 39; on will be approached 20 percent of the warming in the late Permian. And by the year in 2300, will reach between 35 and 50 percent, "he said. "This study highlights the potential of & # 39; mass extinction arising from a similar mechanism under anthropogenic climate change."

The research behind the paper Science, "hypoxia Addicted to temperature Explaining Bioń°eografija and Severity of Extinguishing Mass Permala Final" was funded by the Gordon Foundation and Betty Moore and National Foundation Science.

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