Thursday , September 16 2021

Early astronomers clearly identify the disks that make up the moon around exoplanets



This image was taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Wave Array (ALMA) with which ESO is a partner, showing the wide (left) and close (right) moon-forming disks surrounding the moon. the young Jupiter PDS 70c. Shows the view. Like a planet almost 400 light years away. The enlarged view shows the central face of the PDS 70c and its circumplanetary disk, with a large disk-like circular disk occupying much of the right side of the image. The PDS70 star is located in the center of the wide image on the left. Two planets, PDS70c and PDS70b, were found in the system, the latter not shown in this image. They devoured matter from the constellation disk itself, cutting cavities in the constellation disk as it grew in size. In the process, the PDS 70c acquired its own circumplanetary disk. This contributes to the growth of the planet and the formation of the moon. This circumplanetary disk is as large as the distance between the Sun and the Earth and has enough mass to form up to three satellites the size of a moon. Credit: ALMA (ESO / NAOJ / NRAO) / Benisty et al.

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), a partner of the Southern European Observatory (ESO), astronomers have for the first time clearly detected the presence of disks around planets outside solar system. Observations will shed new light on how the Moon and planets are formed in young star systems.

“Our work is disk Miriam Benisti, a researcher at the University of Grenoble and the University of Chile in France, conducted a new study announced today. Astrophysical Journal Letter.. “Our ALMA observations were taken with such exquisite resolution that we were able to clearly identify that the disk was associated with a planet and limit its size for the first time,” she adds.

The disk in question, called the Circumplanetary Disc, orbits the extrasolar planet PDS70c, one of two giant things like Jupiter. Planet It revolves around a star almost 400 light years away. Astronomers had found advice Previously, there was a “moon-forming” disk around this exoplanet, but so far its discovery could not be confirmed because the disk could not be clearly distinguished from the environment. surrounding.

In addition, with the help of ALMA, Benisti and her team have enough mass for the disk to be about the same diameter as the distance from the Sun to the Earth and to form up to three moon-sized satellites. I found it there.

But results are not just the key to knowing how satellites are generated. “These new observations are also very important in proving the theory of planet formation that could not be tested before,” said the researcher and author of Earth and Planetary Institute at the Institute of Carnegie Science in the United States. One Jehan Be says.

The planets form a dusty disk around a small star, which opens cavities as it swallows matter and grows. In this process, the planet can acquire its own circumplanetary disk. And it contributes to the growth of the planet by adjusting the amount of matter that falls on it. At the same time, gas and dust in the circumplanetary disk can become larger objects due to multiple collisions, eventually leading to the birth of satellites.

However, astronomers do not yet fully understand the details of these processes. “In short, it is still unclear when, where, and how planets and satellites are formed,” explains Stefano Faccini, a Research Fellow at ESO who is also involved in research.

“So far more than 4000 exoplanets have been discovered, all of which have been discovered in mature systems. The PDS70b and PDS70c, which form a system reminiscent of the Jupiter-Saturn pair, so far. Only two exoplanets have been discovered, in the formation process, “explains Miriam Kepler, a researcher and co-author of the study at the Maxplank Institute of Astronomy in Germany.

“Therefore, this system gives us a unique opportunity to observe and study the process of formation of planets and satellites,” adds Faccini.

The two planets that make up the system, PDS70b and PDS70c, were first discovered using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Its unique nature means that it has been observed many times with telescopes and other instruments since then.

The latest high-resolution ALMA observations give astronomers more insight into the system. In addition to confirming the discovery of the circumplanetary disk around PDS 70c and examining its size and mass, PDS 70b did not show clear evidence of such a disk, and PDS 70c did not contain dust material. from the birth environment. Indicates that you. ..

A deeper understanding of the planetary system is achieved with the ESO Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) currently under construction in the Atacama Desert, the Atacama Desert of Chile. “ELT will be key to this study because it can map the system in great detail at much higher resolutions,” said co-author Richard Teague, a researcher at the Center for Astrophysics. Harvard & Smithsonian, USA. In particular, the ELT Mid-Infrared ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) will allow teams to study the motion of the gas surrounding the PDS 70c and obtain a full 3D image. of the system.

This study was published in a treatise entitled “Circumplanetary Disk Around PDS70c”. Astrophysical Journal Letter..


A disk that forms the moon found around a distant planet


For more information:
“Circumstantial disk around PDS70c” Astrophysical Journal Letter (2021). iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … 847 / 2041-8213 / ac0f83

Quote: Astronomers are exoplanets acquired from https://phys.org/news/2021-07-astronomers-moon-forming-disc-exoplanet on July 22, 2021 (July 22, 2021). The disk that forms the moon around is first clearly discovered. html

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