Saturday , June 25 2022

The bacteria can be changed & # 39; help fish & # 39; Nemo & # 39; & # 39 jikkoabita not; anemone fish kill



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A clownfish peers from his inner stoop of & # 39; anemone host. The anemuni are known for istinging, killing and fish food. So, how is the outstanding exception clownfish like this? The bacteria may offer clues. Credit: Ben BRUMFIELD / Georgia Tech

Nemo, the clownfish in the movie adorable Finding Nemo, Escape himself on the anemone to live it to prevent it escaping tingiżel and eating it like most. That leads rubbing the form & # 39; germs covering clownfish to change, according to a new study.


Following common bacterial kootipi with & # 39; anemone clownfish can help build b & # 39; & # 39 as filled in; poisonous tentakkoli of & # 39; the anemone, a strange symbiosis of life scientists, now including a team from the Institute of Technology & # 39; Georgia, tried to appear for decades & # 39; years. The researchers studied marine microbes clownfish that were blended and mixed with & # 39; anemone killing fish.

"It's emblematic mutualism between host and partner, and we know that germs are on every surface & # 39; an animal," said Frank Stewart, associate professor in Georgika School of Biological Sciences Technology. "F & # 39; this particular reciprocity, these surfaces are coated with & # 39; more like the microbes eat: mucus."

mucus swabbing

Clownfish and anemone change lots of & # 39; mucus in hiding. So, researchers clownfish and anemone brought together and analyzed the microbes in the mucus covering the fish when they were hosted by the anemone and when it does not.

"Their mikrobijomu changed", said Zoe Pratte, a postdoctoral researcher in the lab & # 39; Stewart and first author of the new study. "Two bacteria enrolling b & # 39; in particular multiplied by & # 39; contact & # 39; anemone."

"In addition, there have been major changes", said Stewart, the principal investigator of the study. "If you looked at the total microbial assemblies, looked quite different on clownfish and anemone which was hosted by f & # 39; one that was not."

Researchers have clownfish in 12 & # 39; six fish tanks for eight weeks to accelerate their mucus and identify microbes through gene sequencing. They published their results in the journal Herring of Coral. The research was funded by the Simons Foundation.

Questions and Answers

Here are some questions and answers about the experiment, which produced some amusing anecdotes, along with & # 39; fascinating facts about anemone and clownfish. For example: The anemone fish peach on it more b & # 39; her health. Gender change of Clownfish. And it was particularly difficult to catch one fish to researchers referred to "escape."

Group & # 39; clownfish stand warmly by the Anemon Anemon stung and safe to eat. Credit: Georgia Tech / Ben BRUMFIELD

This solves the mystery of this strange symbiosis?

No, but it is a new approach to clownfish, anemone conundrum.

"It's the first step to asking the question," Is there a part of the microbial relationship changed? "Stewart said. The study led the response on the clownfish hand, was" yes ".

prior liens on konundrum said the clownfish mucus was too thick to burn. Current ideas consider the exchange of mucus also covers the clownfish b & # 39; antigen anemone, namely its own immune proteins, or fish and fish killer may exchange chemical messages.

"The anemona can & # 39; to recognize a chemical on the clownfish to keep it to hide", said Stewart. "And it can & # 39; involve microbes. The microbes are large chemical."

Acting, researchers must analyze the chemistry of mucus. They still do not know to what extent the germs on fish change because the bacteria that draws anemone fish. It is possible that mikrobiome of fish mucus only develop b & # 39; differently on fish due to contact.

S & # 39; to make anemone usually do to fish?

Kill and jiekluhom.

"The Anemon evolved to kill fish. Win a little poison darts in leather & # 39; fish to joqtolh then iġbedha f & # 39; mouthed", said Stewart. "The clown fish leaves a living right in & # 39; what."

By the way, the tentacles do not harm people.

"Touching anemone, feel suckling on the finger & # 39;", said Pratte. "Their little arpoons feel like they're sticking with you. Do no harm."

B-roll & # 39; clownfish, anemone and researchers, contained in an aquarium in & # 39; some shots and laboratory f & # 39; others. Researcher & # 39; postdoctoral Zoe Pratte located in lab coat colored. The researcher first degree Alicia Caughman is ħdejnha pipette. Locations: Georgia Aquarium / Frank Stewart lab at Georgia Tech. Video & # 39; higher resolution available on request. Credit: Georgia Tech / Ben BRUMFIELD / shot in Georgia Aquarium

S & # 39; are the anemone and clownfish out of the relationship?

For starters, protect one another from potential prey. But there are many more. Some clownfish even change gender by living in & # 39; annun.

"When beginning to be hosted, the fish make a big change in development," said Stewart. "The first fish group to establish itself in & # 39; anemun in wild transitions from male to female, much larger grow and become the dominant member of the group."

It then is the only woman in school & # 39; younger male men.

The anemuni seem to grow more b & # 39; health, partly because the clownfish urinate on them.

"When hey fish, algae in anemone take nitrogen then secrete fats to eat the anemone and grows compelling", said Pratte. "Sometimes the fish leave their food, and fall & # 39; in anemona to tiekolha."

Some pleasant anecdote from this experiment?

Plenty: It was simple but laborious to conduct scientifically, partly because researchers were taking careful care of fish at the same time.

"You get fish and anemuni to carry them, and the fish can & # 39; & # 39 hosts in; other places, like nooks in the rock", said Pratte.

"The Clownfish is more intelligent than other fish, so they are difficult to catch, especially when we want to reduce the stress on the animals," said Alicia Caughman, assistant & # 39; research has not ggradwax in the Fast Track program to Research of Biology Research. "We have mentioned one fish" escape. "It can & # 39; turns between nets and tight spaces and generally was trying jaqbadh regrets."

"We also" Bubbles ", which blew many bubbles," Biggie "and" Small "," Wide "," Sheila "," Earl "and" Flounder ", who loved the flounder (flop around)," Pratte said. The Clownfish has different sizes and details in their bands, which allow people say them apart.

Side & # 39; the anemone of germs question you & # 39; is difficult to answer because for all enemies & # 39; escape, the anemone, not squishy vertebrates, even more trying. They can squeeze in & # 39; uncomfortable niche or increase drainage of the aquarium, and also have mikrobijoni temperamental.


Explore more:
The predators of the clownfish managing the relationship with & # 39; unlikely friend

More information:
Zoe A. Pratte et al, Association b & # 39; sea change anamun skin mikrobijoma of & # 39; clownfish, Herring of Coral (2018). DOI: 10.1007 / z s00338-018-01750

the Journal reference:
Herring of Coral

Awarded by:
The Technology Institute & # 39;

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