China relies on the launch of the first mission in the side surface of the moon.
The mission Chang & # 39; e 4 robotics is scheduled to launch on a rocket & # 39; Long March 3B on Friday (December 7) around 1:30 p.m. EST (1830 GMT; 2:30 a.m. 8 & # 39; December of local China time).
If all goes according to plan, the body of & # 39; & # 39 Chang e 4 & # 39; s will touch into the River Basin & # 39; of & # 39 South; South Pole-Aitken (SPA) after flight & # 39; 27 days, then studied both the surface and the facial surface & # 39; this region. [China’s Moon Missions Explained (Infographic)]
Both Lander and the Rover were designed as a backup for mission & # 39; & # 39 Chang e 3 managed to China, which has put consignor named Yutu Rover & # 39; down on the moon in & # 39; December 2013.
As a prelude to Chang & # 39; e 4, China launched the satellite & # 39; Queqiao relay this past & # 39; May. Queqiao is now in point Lagrange L2 Earth-moon – a place where the spacecraft can & # 39; manage communications between ground controllers and the landing mission on hand -other.
Lots & # 39; scientific equipment
Chang & # 39; e 4 is expected to go in & # 39; Von Kármán crater, in the basin of the SPA.
In a study published last month, Yingzhuo Jia, a & # 39; University & # 39; Chinese Academy of Sciences, and colleagues established the main scientific objectives of the mission. (Jia also with State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, the National Space Science Center of Chinese Academy of Sciences.)
The mission, Jia team members have written, aims to complete:
radio astronomical study & # 39; low frequency on the lunar surface;
Investigation & # 39; low structure on most hand side & # 39; away from the crossing area;
Studies & # 39; topographic mineralogical composition and side of the bottom side in the watch area of the Rover.
The study is particularly intriguing astronomical radio. The side of the east side always faces away from Earth, it is therefore free from interference ionosfera of our planet, radio frequencies and man-made sounds & # 39; auroral radiation. The solar radio emission is also blocked during the lunar night.
"Therefore, the side furthest lunarja been regarded as the best place for astronomical observation & # 39; low frequency", the researchers wrote in a recent paper.
The document also described eight loads offered by scientific mission.
The Chang operator & # 39; e 4 carries Camera Landing (LCAM), the Terrain Camera (TCAM), the Spectrometry of & # 39; Low Frequency (LFS), and Lunar Lander Neutrons and Dosimetry (LND ). The Rover also has four & # 39; instruments: Panoramic Camera (PCAM), the lunar penetrating Radar (LPR), the Spectrometry of Visible Imaging and Infrared (VNIS), and Small Advanced Analyzer għan- Newtralji (ASAN) Sweden.
The LFS was recently developed for installation Chang & # 39; e 4; the other native charges & # 39; Chinese cargo inherited from Chang & # 39; e 3, the researchers wrote.
The satellite relay of & # 39; Queqiao also bears the Explorer instrument called Low Frequency between the Netherlands and China (NCLE). The NCLE and LFS of & # 39; waste will perform radio astronomical observations & # 39; Joint frequency. [Moon Master: An Easy Quiz for Lunatics]
The LPR device x & # 39; likely to be able to identify the surface structure on the route & # 39; watch the robot, and to detect the thickness and the regolita lunarja structure. The radar device is & # 39; the impulse of nanosekonda b & # 39; antenji bistatiċi.
It works like this: Impulse nanosekonda of & # 39; ultra-wideband transmitter is produced by, and then sent from the antenna to transmit & # 39; down to the lunar surface. The sign & # 39; echo from target & # 39; Underground is received by the receiving antenna, amplified in the receiver and then restored as a data record.
biological experiment, and
According to earlier history this year by the Chinese agency Xinhua news state-run, Chang & # 39; e 4 will also carry a tin seeds to seed potatoes and arabidopsis, a small plant flower related -kaboċċi and mustard. Can & # 39; also be silk eggs.
This experiment "mini lunar biosphere" was designed by 28 Chinese universities, led by the University & # 39; Chongqing of southwest China. The cylindrical tin, made of special materials of aluminum alloy, weighs approximately 6.6 lbs. (3 kilograms).
The impact basin
The basin & # 39; the SPA is the largest and oldest basin & # 39; the impact of the moon. Although the terrain is low, this unfilled region with & # 39; based bulbs as other moon basins, Jia and colleagues noted, suggesting that it can & # 39; a special thermal history and characteristics of & # 39; unique evolution.
The study materials in the region can & # 39; therefore help to reveal the composition of the shell and even the moon's mantle, the researchers wrote.
The lunar probe of China, Chang & # 39; e 5, is designed to bring samples selected from the moon back to Earth. It builds on a progression of & # 39; explorers Chinese Moon: Chang orbitaturi & # 39; e 1 and Chang & # 39; e 2 in 2007 and 2010, respectively, Chang & # 39; e 3 f & # 39 , December 2013, and Chang & # 39; e 5 T1, which launched the test capsule on a trip around the moon in & # 39; October 2014. the capsule parankwata b & # 39; security back to Earth eight days after -tluq.
David Leonard is the author & # 39; "Mars: Our Future on the Red Planet", published by National Geographic. The book is a companion to the National Geographic Channel series "Mars". Writer & # 39; a time to Space.com, David has been reporting on the space industry for more than five decades. Follow us @ Spacedotcom, Facebook or Google+. This version of the story published on Space.com.