Mariner 4 & # 39; NASA conducted the first flyby b & # 39; success of the red planet in 1965, and returned 21 photo.
Mariner 9 made orbit around Mars and came back more than 7,000 photo.
And the Vikings 1 and 2 NASA not only put the spacecraft in & # 39; arbit around Mars in 1976, but on the surface, as well. The twin Vikings were the first provinces & # 39; success on Mars the planet Earth.
The nineties were not good for NASA. humiliating conversion & # 39; English metric conversion weakened the Observer & # 39; Mars in 1993. Another Orbitatur of & # 39; US lost later, as well as landing and two accompanying probes designed to penetrate the surface.
Despite decades & # 39; & # 39 years; tried, Russia, b & # 39; in particular, had bad luck in & # 39; Mars.
The then Soviet Union was the first one who tried flyby of & # 39; Mars in 1960. The spacecraft never reached Earth orbit. After more failures & # 39; launch and flight accidents, the Soviżi finally got a pair of & # 39; spacecraft in orbit & # 39; Mars in 1971 and received actual data. But friends of friends were a total bust.
And so went to the Soviet / Russian by & # 39; attempt their most recent with China in 2011. The goal was raised to put a spacecraft on the moon & # 39; Mars Phobos to collect and return samples, and put the second spacecraft in & # 39; erbit around Mars. Neither made it out of Earth orbit.
Europe was also handles in & # 39; & # 39 snake in; Mars, as well as Japan.
While the European Space Agency satellites to work around Mars, two attempts & # 39; landing failed. Just two years ago, its sender hit the surface with & # 39; a rapid rate, facilitated the krater. The only spacecraft on the side of Japan, launched in 1998, did not make its orbit.
India, meanwhile, has been operating for four satellites around Mars & # 39; years, the first and sole shot at the red planet.
There is a strong European presence on NASA Insight. Germany is in charge of the mechanical mole that is designed to detonate & # 39; 5 meters Martian surface to take measurements of heat underground, while France lead the seismometru monitoring of Quake.
On the surface, Curiosity is the only thing that operate on Mars. Currently in orbit: U.S. Odyssey since 2001, Mars Express & # 39; Europe (2003), U.S. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006), U.S. Maven (2014), Orbiter Mangalyaan of & # 39; India (2014) and European orbit of & # 39; Trace Gas (2016).