In sunlight, NAMB Neonothopanus brown fungus is quite difficult. But surprise draw after the drab facade: at night, the fungus ghostly glows red. NAMB Neonothopanus is one of more than 100 species & # 39; mushrooms emitting. Aristotle already documented this phenomenon, called bioluminescence, is described in glowing, treebark rot. Now, scientists have identified for the first time the biochemical pathway that allows the fungi bioluminexxenti light. But went even further: by placing the three genes required to generate luminescence in & # 39; yeast that tleqqix, artificially created ewkarajt luminescent. Fyodor Kondrashov, a professor at the Science and Institute of Technology Austria (IST Austria) was co-author & # 39; study published today in PNAS, Which was led by Ilia Yampolsky at the Institute of Chemistry of Bioorganika & # 39; the Academy of Sciences in Russia & # 39; Moscow.
The rats extinguishing fire and glowing mushrooms on the forest floor are among the few things that should appear in & # 39; dark day deep in the Brazilian forest. Both behave like living night lights thanks to process & # 39; bioluminescence, natural phenomenon whereby a substance called Lucifer is oxidized with the help of & # 39; the luciferase enzyme to get light. Bioluminescence found in & # 39; several species, from worms strong deep-sea fish. S & # 39; now, however, the biochemical pathway that makes Lucifer was not understood in & # 39; an organism than bacteria. This lack of & # 39; awareness hampers attempts to make higher organisms, such as animals and plants, glow. Now, an international collaboration between twelve different institution run by Ilia Yampolsky, with the participation of & # 39; Fyodor Kondrashov, Louisa Gonzalez Somermeyer and his former group member Karen Sarkisyan, identified as eukaryotes NAMB Neonothopanus glows.
Scientists have found a key gene responsible for bijoluminexxenza of & # 39; NAMB Neonothopanus. Using the library screening and genome analysis, the team identified the enzymes that contribute to the synthesis of & # 39; Lucifer. They showed that fungal Lucifer, the substrate for reaction & # 39; bijoluminixxenza, only two enzymatic steps & # 39; far from well known metabolite, called kaffeiku acid to generate the fungus. When you compare the mushrooms with bright & # 39; those who do not, the team & # 39; Kondrashov also discovered how gene duplication allowed the bijoluminexxenza evolve over a hundred million years ago. Why has evolved, remains unclear, says Kondrashov: "The bijoluminixxenza is & # 39; benefit or simply product? We do not know the & # 39; now. There is evidence that the glow attracts insects to distribute the spores. But do not think this is convincing. "
Knowing how bijoluminixxenti fungus glow, researchers informed eukaryotes not bijoluminixxenti. Insert a gene encoding luciferase NAMB Neonothopanus plus & # 39; three other genes whose products form the chain that converts kafetiku acid metabolite in the substrate response, Lucifer, in yeast Pichia pastoris resulted in & # 39; & # 39 glowing colonies; yeast. "We do not supply chemical yeast glow. Instead, we provide the enzymes it needs to switch metabolite already present in the yeast to light," explains Kondrashov.
This discovery can & # 39; find extensive applications, from textiles to report changes in their physiology by lighting up the creation of & # 39; glowing animals and plants. "If we think & # 39; scenarios & # 39; science, in which the glowing plants replace street lights – this is. This is the breakthrough that can & # 39; towards this," Kondrashov concludes, " However, it can & # 39; there several years until the road lighting plant is inġinerit. "
Institute of Science and Technology Austria. .