Reëipru the ancient sea resembling dolphins similar to remotely near f & # 39; more than appearance, according to an international team & # 39; researchers that includes scientists from the University & # 39; the state & # 39; North Carolina and Sweden & # 39; University & # 39; Lund. molecular analysis and micro-structural & # 39; a Stenopterygius ichyosaur the Jurassic (180 million years ago) reveals that these animals get & # 39; probably were warm-blooded, have insulating fat and used their color as kamuflaġ from predators.
"Ictyosaurs are interesting because they have many features in common with dolphins, but are not closely related to & # 39; those mammals that live in the sea", says the co-author & # 39; Mary Schweitzer research, biological sciences professor at NC State with & # 39; a joint appointment at the Natural Sciences Museum & # 39; North Carolina and visiting professor at the University & # 39; Lund. "It ninsabux exactly sure of their biology. They have many common traits with living marine reptiles like turtles, but we know from fossils document gave live birth, which is associated with & # 39; hot blood . This study shows some of those biological mysteries. "
Johan Lindgren, associate professor at the University & # 39; & # 39 Lund; Sweden and the main author & # 39; a document describing the work, put together an international team to analyze Stenopterygius fossils about 180 million years from barrier & # 39; Holzmaden in Germany.
"Both the contour of the body and the remains of internal organs are visible b & # 39; clearly," says Lindgren. "B & # 39; markedly, fossil is so well preserved that it is possible to observe individual cell layers in his skin."
The researchers identified microstructures such cells had organelle pigment in the fossil skin, as well as traces of & # 39; internal organ that was thought to be the liver. They also noted material chemically consistent with & # 39; vertebrate fat, that's just f & # 39; animals able to maintain body temperature independent of environmental conditions.
Lindgren sent fossil samples to international colleagues, including Schweitzer. The team conducted a variety of & # 39; & # 39 analytical techniques; high resolution, including secondary mass spectrometry & # 39; time & # 39; Flight (TOF SIMS), spectrometry & # 39; nanoscale secondary ion mass (NanoSIMS), pyrolysis gas chromatography / mass spectrometry, as well immunohistoloġika analysis and various microscopic techniques.
Schweitzer and assistant & # 39; research & # 39; NC State WENXIA Zheng soft tissues extracted from the samples and performed immunohistochemical analysis istokimiċi & # 39; multiple high resolution. "We have developed a panel of & # 39; antibodies that we have applied to all samples, and I saw that bind differential, which means antibodies to keratin or hemoglobin similar to proteins – linked only & # 39; domains", says Schweitzer. "This demonstrates the specificity of & # 39; these antibodies and is strong evidence that persist different proteins in & # 39; different tissues. M & # 39; have to wait to find keratin in the liver, for example, but await hemoglobin. and this is what we have seen in the responses of & # 39; those samples for various antibodies and other chemical tools. "
The laboratory & # 39; Lindgren found chemical evidence for fat under the skin. "This is the first direct evidence for warm-blooded and chemical f & # 39; iktarużur, because the color is a feature of & # 39; hot blood animals", says Schweitzer.
Taken together, the researchers' findings indicate that Stenopterygius had skin similar to that & # 39; whale, and similar color to many living marine animals – darker on top and lighter on the bottom – to provide kamuflaġ from predators, such Pterosaur from, or pliosauri underneath.
"Both morphologically and chemically, we found that although Stenopterygius be considered" reptiles ", lost skajla skin associated with & # 39; these animals, as the sea turtle modern cow was", says Schweitzer. "Losing scales reduces the trends and increase maneuverability underwater.
"Preserving & # 39; this animal unusual, especially marine environment – but then, the Holzmaden formation is known for its exceptional preservation. This specimen has given us further evidence that these tissues and molecules can preserve for extremely long periods, and analysis of soft tissue can & # 39; sheds light on evolutionary patterns, relationships and how old were working animals in their environment.
"Our results were repeatable and consistent across the laboratories. This work really shows what we are able to discover when they deliver multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study & # 39; exceptional specimen."
North Carolina State University. .