URBANA – Your poodle can & # 39; has a French race, but Siberia played a key role in the introduction of & # 39; dogs in the Americas.
That is part of the research done at the University & # 39; Illinois and the Archaeological Survey & # 39; the state & # 39; Illinois, based on the dog remains, including two dogs buried back in & # 39; & # 39 site; Illinois across the Mississippi River from St. Luke.
That loving burial and ceremonial and about 50 fossilized dog help tell the story, reports the News Gazette.
That genetic code tells us not only about dogs, but potentially on humans crossed a bridge & # 39; the land that once existed between Siberia and Alaska, said Ripan Malhi, a professor in anthropology and in school of integrative biology.
The Archaeological Survey & # 39; the state & # 39; Illinois was found several sites with dogs in them.
Not to destroy scientific and cultural relics of & # 39; value, the team & # 39; Malhi took samples from domesticated dogs can be close to & # 39; 10,000 years, probably the oldest in America.
"The waived amount is about the size of & # 39; (dental cavity)," he said.
Malhi worked closely with & # 39; Kelsey Witt Dillon, who led the work of the mitochondrial DNA genome, after the maternal line of dogs, as a graduate student here. (She is now Postdoctoral researcher at the University & # 39; California Merced.)
F & # 39; clean place – no trace of & # 39; contaminants – researchers extracted DNA. Then it was sequentially in & # 39; another laboratory to create "genomic library".
"The DNA gives millions & # 39; DNA bits", said Malhi, some of which has been contaminated with germs or even human interference.
These first dogs arrived in the Americas from Siberia, said Malhi, and largely disappeared after European contact, extreme version of depopulation with & # 39; Native American after contact.
During the Ice Age (which lasts until about 14,500 years ago), the sea levels were lower and the region between Western Siberia and Alaska East was all land, more than the Strait & # 39; Bering we know today. The region is known as "Beringia", and people (and dogs) could cross the bridge on the ground because of this lower level of the sea, Witt Dillon added.
Scientists debate how exactly the native dogs generally dropped gene pool: Our ancestors were qatluhom to prevent breeding with dogs already bred for hunting and herd, or have been eaten in times & # 39; hunger.
The disease is often the case out, as the same happened to the Native Americans.
In the journal "Science", the researchers argue that the first dog in the Americas were domestic wolves & # 39; American & # 39; On.
Most likely, they wrote, dogs followed them over bridge humans & # 39; the land that once connected Asia of & # 39; On through Siberia in the Americas.
F & # 39; archaeological site near CAHOKIA called janey B. Goode, other researchers found dogs b & # 39; markings on their shoulders.
Malhi said that brands can mean that dogs not only our best friends but our co-workers, by helping to get carts & # 39; supplies or other type & # 39; Similar work for their continued use with sleds in the Northwest.
The specialty & # 39; & # Malhi is tracking a 39; genetic history, so his articles have titles such as "Distribution & # 39; Y chromosome among native North Americans: study & # 39; history of the Athapaskan population".
He worked closely with the people of the First Nations in British Columbia and Alaska, including the study of & # 39; resource invaluable food, salmon.
The nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA to tell stories with & # 39; different ways.
Nuclear DNA "is the type of & # 39; DNA that most people probably think – 23 pair & # 39; your chromosomes are all nuclear DNA, and you're certain half from your mother and half from father ", explained Witt Dillon.
"Your mitochondrial DNA inherited from your mother," she said, "and is located at & # 39; many more copies per cell than in your nuclear DNA, so it is easier to find in & # 39; old cases DNA, that are usually degraded and fragmented. "
There are questions about when and where dogs were domesticated.
"Dogs get & # 39; likely they were domesticated between 15,000 and 21,000 years ago, x & # 39; anywhere in Europe or Asia," said Witt Dillon. "The Europe, Middle East, South East Asia and Central Asia all been suggested as places where dogs originated, but for m & # 39; We should clear answer."
Possibly dogs raised in & # 39; & # 39 several places, "birth".
By the way, that ending any dirt dog walk? Pain you, but & # 39; great value to science as koproliti fossilized.
The graduate student of anthropology I Karthik Yarlagadda looking at the mikrobijomi in koproliti, working with Malhi.
In modern studies, he knows, the tested samples contain a large number of & # 39; germ reflecting number & # 39; factors, including host genetics, diet and environment.
"Because koproliti represent old faecal samples, x & # 39; likely still contain some amount of residual DNA from microbes that lived in dogs at that time. This is particularly interesting because old mikrobijemi give us additional insight on the life history of & # 39; individual. Yarlagadda said.