A growing number of & # 39; genomic studies have generated important discoveries regarding health and human behavior, but new research from the University & # 39; Oxford suggests that scientific advancement is limited by a lack of & # 39; diversity. Show people studied in research on genetic discovery stay in the most & # 39; European descent, but also for the first time show that subjects are concentrated in & # 39; number & # 39 ; countries – the United Kingdom, the United States and Iceland, and have specific demographics. The authors warn that failure & # 39; diversity has potentially major implications for the understanding and applications of & # 39; genetic discoveries.
The – study published in & # 39 ;. T Biology Communication contributes to a significant understanding of a large number of aspects that make prejudice genomic over time. The work reviewed nearly 4,000 scientific study between 2005 and 2018, treated the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog, which the Genetic Association Studies whole wide (GWAS) to date.
These studies have identified multiple genetic groups related & # 39; diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's, for psychiatric disorders, physical characteristics, of & # 39; behavioral and psychological. The study examined the explosion in the number of & # 39; people studied, the number and strength of & # 39; discovered & # 39; genetic association, and growth and variation in the number of & # 39; results (or & # 39; & # 39 phenotypes;) studied. Look also at who was being studied in & # 39; terms & # 39; ancestor background, geographic location and demographics, but also who was carrying out research, including networks and features of the researchers themselves.
Despite staggering growth in sample sizes, the number of & # 39; features, and studied and discovered genetic disease, findings from the study show that the ancestors stopped diversity and non-white groups are still represented too.
By extending research in & # 39; this area are showing that this varies considerably over time and when including groups & # 39; non-European ancestry, is often just to "replicate" results, to -kuntrarju of & # 39; fundamental new genetic discoveries. Beyond the ancestral diversity, the authors first estimate that 72 percent of the data (often repeatedly) was utilized by individuals recruited by only three countries; United Kingdom (40%), the US (19%), and Iceland (12%). Data were subjected not only to the geographical concentration, but was also seen higher than anticipated proportion of elderly, women, some more some of the data used by & # 39; prominently, and subjects with higher socioeconomic status and better health.
Professor Melinda Mills (MBE FBA), a leading author and Nuffield Professor of Sociology, said: "The lack of & # 39; ancestors diversity in genomic research was & # 39; continuing concerns, but little attention was paid on the geographic and demographic characteristics of the people who are: studied, who study them, and exactly what to study. genetic breakthroughs offer exciting medical possibilities, but without increasing the diversity of the people studied and the environments in which they live, use and return of this research are limited. There is a growing recognition that our health outcomes are complex interaction between genes and the environment – in other words the nature and the foster – but many of the findings were taken from populations that are very similar, b & # 39; limited environmental variation. "
The authors also analyzed the main sponsors of this work (primarily the United sources Kingdom and the United States) and showed gender differences in scientific author, and estimated that up to 70 percent the authors in high position "last author" are male. They also provide evidence & # 39; a well-worked core network that revolves around providers & # 39; access to data, such as researchers working as principal investigators & # 39; longitudinal cohort and senior members & # 39; large biopharmaceutical companies. They provide a number of & # 39; & # 39 recommendations; Key policy editors, to funders and policy makers. These include: prioritizing & # 39; & # 39 different types; diversity and strategies for monitoring diversity, warnings about the interpretation of & # 39; ancestors genetic differences between groups, calls for involvement & # 39; local actors, and reform strategies & # 39; of & # 39 structures; incentives to undertake between the roles & # 39; author, data ownership, and access to results.
Professor Mills adds: "We were able to use different types of & # 39; data and unite together with & # 39; new ways to showcase b & # 39; empirical way the inner workings of & # 39; this area & # 39; important research for our first time. it is hope that the 10 recommendations & # 39; policy-based evidence will to further improve the power of genomics revolution going. ''
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