After a journey of & # 39; seven & # 39; months, the probe Insight & # 39; Nasa is about to come in & # 39; Mars and – if touchdowns goes to plan – push unprecedented mission to shape the planet's interior.
The arter will aim for one of the toughest parts of the planet powdered face, Elysium Planitia, a large bait & # 39; lava that the US space agency requires "the greatest park on Mars ". The flat area without rocks was seen as the ideal place for Insight to record the tremors opened a "Marsquakes" and to measure the heat flux in layers & # 39; on the planet.
The mission & # 39; $ 814m (£ 633m) to help scientists understand the core, shell and mantle Martian, and allow for the first time to know how the planet was formed at the beginning solar system 4.6bn years ago.
Landing & # 39; probe on Mars remains & # 39; delicate business for rocket scientists: only 40% of missions succeeded. NASA is the only space agency ġibet landing on the planet, most recently in 2012 when the Curiosity Rover joined the face of "sky crane". In 2016 the European Space Agency sought to put space on Mars, but the probe & # 39; Schiaparelli rejected the retro rockets quickly and handed her to the ground.
The Insight is expected to call in Lander & # 39; & # 39 temperature, around 8pm GMT on Monday, and multiple critical steps need to work perfectly. The spacecraft hit the atmosphere at 13,200 mph maritime thin, use and leak parankajl 12 retro thrusters to soften its landing. Nasa calls the phases & # 39; mission entry, descent and landing & # 39; Mars become the seventh & # 39; & # 39 minutes; terror. Confirmation & # 39; the descent will be transmitted back to Earth by & # 39; two experimental satellites cubes climbed probe to its destination.
On the surface & # 39; Mars, Insight (for Exploration & # 39; inside using the & # 39; Seismic Investigations) will use a set of & # 39; instruments to study the internal structure of the planet. Seismometers deployed a robot arm will act as an ear to the ground and hear & # 39; tremors produced when surfaces slippery subterranean rock succession along lines & # 39; geological faults. Bruce Banerdt, the main mission scientist at Propulsion Laboratory of Nasa Jet in California, expects Insight download anything from twenty to 100 Marskwoli of & # 39; & # 39 magnitude; 3.5 or more on the mission & # 39; two of the country by country. The seismometers is so sensitive that it can & # 39; detects vibrations smaller than the width & # 39; a & # 39; atom.
Another instrument aboard arter heat probe is similar to that orange, which will throw & # 39; vertically into the ground and measure the rate at which heat comes from the planet. The interior & # 39; Mars has cooled the hot days of its assembly in the solar system, and as the heat leaving the planet, the surface contracts and wrinkles.
Third Insight experiment will exploit two radio antennas on arter. The mission scientists can use them to monitor the position of & # 39; the artiera with extreme precision, and thus infer how wet Mars on its axis as like the sun. The amount wobbles reflect the size of the core of the planet and whether molten or solid.
Lori Glaze, acting director of the division of Nasa planetary sciences, said: "Once Insight be resolved on the red planet and its instruments are deployed, will start collecting valuable information about the structure deep interior & # 39; Wife – information to help us understand the formation and evolution of planets of all rocks, including what we call home. "