Sunday , June 11 2023

The five most addictive substances in the world


From the perspective of different researchers, the potential for a drug to be dependent can be judged according to the damage it causes, with the drug street value, the extent to which the medicine activate the system -dopamina of mind, how pleasant people Report the medicine is, the degree to which the drug causes symptoms & # 39; retirement, and how easily a person to try the drug becomes attached.
There are other aspects to measure the potential of drug addiction also, and there are also researchers argue that no drug is always addictive. Due to the varied view of researchers, then, one way of classifying the drug addiction is asking boards & # 39; experts.

1. Heroin

The experts Nutt et al. Ranked heroin as the most addictive drug, and gave it a score of 3 from the maximum score of 3. Heroin is opjate causing the dopamine in the brain reward system increased by 200% in & # 39; experimental animals. Apart from perhaps the most addictive drug, heroin is also dangerous, because the dose can & # 39; cause of death is only five times greater than the dose required for a high level.
Snorted, injected or smoked? Can & # 39; affect drug addiction
Heroin has also been classified as the second most harmful drug in & # 39; terms & # 39; damage to both users and society. The market for illegal opiates, including heroin, has been estimated at $ 68 billion worldwide in 2009.

2. Cocaine

Cocaine Effects: The higher and damage
Cocaine interferes directly with the use of dopamine from the brain to convey messages from newronu to another. Essentially, cocaine prevents neurons from off to the signal of dopamine, resulting f'attivazzjoni abnormal pathways of brain reward. In experiments on animals, cocaine led to the dopamine levels rise more than three times the normal level. It is estimated that between 14 million and 20 million people worldwide use cocaine and in 2009 the cocaine market was worth around $ 75 billion.
Blocking & # 39; rewards: How the immune system can & # 39; help treat cocaine addiction
Crack cocaine has been ranked by experts as the third most harmful drugs and cocaine powder, which causes high & # 39; mild, as the fifth most harmful. Around 21% of people who try cocaine become dependent in & # 39; some time & # 39; lives. The cocaine is similar to other addictive stimulants, such as methamphetamine – which is becoming more & # 39; problem as becoming available – and amphetamine.

3. Nicotine

Nicotine in e-cigs, tobacco linked to heart disease

Nicotine is the main ingredient of tobacco dependence. When someone smokes a cigarette, nicotine is quickly absorbed by the lungs and delivered to the brain. The boards & # 39; experts & # 39; Nutt et al have classified nicotine (tobacco) as the third most addictive substance.

More than two-thirds of Americans who have tried smoking reported to have become dependent lifetime. In 2002, WHO estimated that there were more than one billion smokers and it has been estimated that tobacco will kill more than 8 million people per year by 2030. Laboratory animals have the good sense to not smoke. However, the rats will press a button to receive nicotine directly into their blood – and this leads to levels & # 39; dopamine in the system & # 39; award of the brain increased by & # 39; about 25% to 40%.
S & # 39; is dopamine, and is to blame for our addictions?

4. Barbiturates ( "downers")

Barbiturates – also known as blue bullets, gorillas, numies, barbs and pink ladies – are class & # 39; drug initially used to treat anxiety and induce sleep. They interfere with the chemical signaling in the brain, whose effect is to shut down different regions of the brain. F & # 39; low doses, barbiturates cause euphoria, but in & # 39; higher doses can be lethal because suppress breathing. The barbiturate dependence was common when the drugs were easily available by prescription, but it decreased by & # 39; dramatically as replaced them with other drugs. This highlights the role that context plays in addiction: drug addicted if not available b & # 39; & # 39 ;, as widely as you can & # 39; doing little damage. The Nutt expert panels et al barbiturates ranked as the fourth most addictive substance.

5. Alcohol

Although legal in the United States and the United Kingdom, alcohol was skoljat from experts & # 39; Nutt et al. 1.9 a maximum of & # 39; 3. Alcohol has many effects on the brain, but in laboratory experiments on animals increased levels & # 39; & # dopamine in the system 39; award of the brain by 40% to 360% – and the more the animals drank more dopamine levels increased.
No amount of & # 39; alcohol is good for your overall health, says a global study
Around 22% of people who took a drink will develop dependence on alcohol in & # 39; some point during their lives. The WHO estimated that 2 billion people have used alcohol in 2002 and more than 3 million people died in 2012 due to damage to the body caused by drinking. Alcohol has been classified as the most harmful drugs from other experts.

Eric Bowman is a lecturer in psychology and neuroscience at the University & # 39; St. Andrews and received funding from the UK Medical Research Council.

Source link