F & # 39; this photo provided by James Balog / Extreme Ice Survey and Matthew Kennedy, the Stein glacier in Switzerland in 2015. Over the past decade, scientists and photographers are still returning to the world and commanded glacier shrinkage b & # 39; each visit. Now other people have to watch out & # 39; & # 39 jassumhom in; series & # 39; before and after photos.
WASHINGTON – Scientists are seeing surprising melting in the polar regions in the world & # 39; not expect times, like winter, and f & # 39; places not expect, such as East Antarctica.
New studies and reports issued this week in & # 39; major conference about Earth sciences one of the largest paint pictures yet & # 39; dramatic warming in the Arctic and Antarctica. Scientists & # 39; the Alaskan described Tuesday to The Associated Press Tuesday that has never been seen and problems & # 39; Winter never seen before, including permafrost never reinforce this winter of & # 39; past and die-offs of wildlife.
The National Administration Oceanic and Atmospheric Tuesday issued its annual paper on the Arctic, which detailed the most hot second year was recorded in the Arctic and problems, including track & # 39; ice low water in winter & # 39; parts of the region, an increase in toxic algae, a phenomenon, and changes in the weather in the rest of the country attributed to what is happening in the North East.
"The Arctic is experiencing the most unprecedented in human history" transition, said the main author Emily Osborne, head of the Arctic research for NOAA, said Tuesday.
S & # 39; is happening is a big deal, said the director of the environmental sciences program & # 39; University & # 39; Colorado Waleed Abdalati, NASA's former chief scientist who was not part of the NOAA report.
"It is a new Arctic. We've from white to blue," said Abdalati, adding that he usually does not use the word "scary" but applies.
And that means other problems.
"The continuous heating & # 39; the Arctic atmosphere and ocean driving wide change in environmental system in & # 39; predicted times, and also unexpected", said the NOAA report.
One of the most noticeable problem was the record low sea ice in the winter in the Sea & # 39; Bering in 2017 and 2018, scientists said.
In February, the Bering Sea "lost area & # 39; ice zone & # 39; Idaho", said Donald Perovich, engineering professor Dartmouth College, co-author of the paper & # 39; report.
This is a problem because the sea ice of the oldest and thickest declining 95 percent from 30 years ago. In 1985, about one sixth of ice was thick Arctic sea of & # 39; many years in the snow, now is maybe one percent, said Perovich.
the marine mammal biologist & # 39; University & # 39; Alaska Fairbanks Gay Sheffield not only studying the record & # 39; low ice, but lives every day in & # 39; Numei, is situated north on the Bering Sea.
"I walked away from Nome and had open water in & # 39; December," Sheffield said at the American Geophysical Union conference in & # 39; Washington. "We have much impact us."
"After this free zone hail is having such a huge environmental change," said Sheffield, adding that there was "multi-species die" of ocean life. She said that includes the first mass of the spring dies of seals along the Strait & # 39; Bering.
The ornithologist George Divoky who has been studying black gillemots of & # 39; Cooper Island for 45 years noted something different this year. In the past, a pair of 225 & # 39; of seabirds nesting arriving at his island. This work of the past winter was to put 85 pairs but only 50 white and 25 had only & # 39; successful openings. He blamed the lack of & # 39; sea ice in winter.
"It was like a ghost town," said Divoky.
With the general melting, especially in summer, herds of & # 39; Caribou and wild reindeer have fallen about 55 percent – from 4.7 million to 2.1 million animals – through heating and flies and parasites that brings, said Howard Epstein book report & # 39; University & # 39; Virginia.
The researcher & # 39; & # 39 of Fairbanks; University & # 39; Alaska Vladimir Romanovsky said he was alarmed by what happened to permafrost – ground that remains & # 39; frozen year & # 39; away. This past year, Romanovsky found 25 spots used for freezing at & # 39; in January, then February, but never frozen this year.
Due to the warming, the Arctic is "seeing concentrations & # 39; algal toxins moving north" to infect birds, mammals and shellfish to become a public health and economic problem.
And hot and Arctic sea ice melting have been connected to & # 39; changes in jet brought extreme winter storms in the East in the past year, said Osborne.
But not only the Arctic. The last radar space-based NASA, Icesat 2, in its first few months have already found that the ice shelf & # 39; Dotson in Antarctica lost more than 390 feet (120 meters) thick by -2003, said left radar scientist Ben Smith & # 39; Washington.
Another study was released Monday by NASA found unusual melting at & # 39; eastern parts of & # 39; Antarctica, scientists were generally considered stable.
Four & # 39; & # 39 glaciers in; Vincennes Bay lost eleven feet & # 39; ice thickness since 2008, said NASA scientists left Catherine Walker and Alex Gardner.
The loss of & # 39; ice sheets in Antarctica can & # 39; leading to a huge rise in sea level.
"We are starting to see a change that is related to & # 39; ocean," said Gardner. "Believe it or not this is the first time you are to see in & # 39; this place."