Monday , May 23 2022

AIDS, malaria, syphilis … how to avoid infectious diseases for which m & # 39; no vaccine


The list of infectious diseases is enormous.

And although there is a vaccine for many of these diseases – those caused by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, protozoan or fungus – there are also others for those who do not exist, such as AIDS, leprosy, hepatitis C, malaria or syphilis.

The good news is that treatment and have a good forecast. And there things to do to prevent contagion.

Next, we explain these diseases, symptoms, their treatments and ways to prevent.


S & # 39; is: It is a sexually transmitted infection (STD) caused by HIV, a retrovirus that attacks the immune system.

Transmitted through & # 39; vaginal sex, anal and oral, as well as a & # 39; the use of & # 39; syringes and instruments & # 39; infected piercing, as well as through transfusion & # 39; contaminated blood. infected mother can & # 39; also pass it on to her child during pregnancy, labor or breastfeeding.

It is important to emphasize that non-HIV the same as AIDS: there are many people who are HIV positive (the virus is present in their body) to spend years without showing any symptoms and without developing foot. The acronym "AIDS" syndrome comes from & # 39; acquired immunodeficiency, and refers to disease caused by a virus.

Sísymptoms: In the initial phase, called acute infection, the disease can easily be confused with a simple flu, because it causes fever and malaise.

Other common signs are spots on the body, swollen glands in the neck and sore throat. The next phase, which is symptomatic and can & # 39; last several years, "is marked by a strong interaction between the defense cells and the constant and rapid mutations of the virus."

Then comes the phase in which they appear symptoms: diarrhea, fever, asthenia (loss or reduction in physical health), sweat & # 39; night and loss of & # 39; weight & # 39; more than 10%. With passage of time, the immune system is becoming weaker, and favor the emergence of & # 39; diseases such as viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, the toxoplasmosis and even some types & # 39; cancer.


diagnosis and dealsfor: AIDS is diagnosed with & # 39; blood test and treatment consists of a mixture of & # 39; antiretroviral drugs (ARV), whose functions are to prevent the proliferation of & # 39; HIV in the body and prevent the weakening of the immune system to improve the quality of life and prolong survival The patient has to take medication for the rest of & # 39; his life.

prevention: use of & # 39; condoms (both male and female) in all sexual relations and the use of & # 39; syringes and needles and disposable gloves use to manage wounds and body fluids.


S & # 39; is: Is an infectious disease, contagious, curing that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It is caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae and its transmission occurs through & # 39; contact & # 39; cough and sneeze, and by & # 39; close contact and prolonged with & # 39; infected people.

Sísymptoms: These vary according to the type & # 39; disease, but the most common are white spots, reddish or brown in any part of the body, accompanied by the loss or alteration of & # 39; Thermal sensitivity (hot and cold), touch and pain, mainly in the body's extremities. hands and feet, on the surface, on the ears, on the trunk, buttocks and feet.

Can & # 39; also cause loss of & # 39; hair, lack of & # 39; sweating, swelling and decreased muscle strength & # 39; hands and feet, fever, edema, joint pain, muscle atrophy and bleeding from the nose. The aggravation of the disease still can & # 39; cause serious physical deformities and oral and eye problems.


diagnosis andtreatment: To be diagnosed with leprosy is necessary to make clinical, dermatoneuroloġiċi and & # 39; sensitivity.

The treatment is ambulatory (without being hospitalized) and carried out using the antibiotic polikhemoterapewtiku. The length is determined by the doctor: can & # 39; is between six months and two years. With the correct treatment, uninterrupted and made in the initial stages of the disease, the leprosy to cure. In addition, during treatment, patients are no longer contagious and therefore not & # 39; should not remain isolated.

prevention: To avoid cutting & # 39; lebża, it is essential to avoid contact with infected people. Moreover, when the disease is already present, the best way to avert it is disabling physical causes is early diagnosis.

Hepatitis C

S & # 39; is: caused by a virus (HCV), hepatitis C is an infection that affects the liver.

Its transmission occurs through & # 39; contact & # 39; infected blood, can & # 39; occur by sharing syringes, needles, razor blades, nail pliers and other items contaminated. Can & # 39; also be transmitted in surgical, dental procedures, hemodialysis, transfusion and endoscopy when biosecurity standards are not applied and, less commonly, at birth and during birth unprotected sex.

Sísymptoms: the disease is not always show symptoms, and are often non-specific, making it difficult to be diagnosed. Anyway, some of which are weakness, skin and yellow eyes, dark urine, light stools, lethargy, dizziness, vomiting and mild fever.

When the virus persists for more than six months, which is common in & # 39; not more than 80% of cases, it can & # 39; evolve into chronic form. When this happens, one in five patients is f & # 39; c risk of developing cirrhosis and, from 1% to 5%, of liver cancer.


diagnosis andtreatment: Hepatitis C, diagnosed through a blood test, has a high probability of treatment success (90% to 95%) when correctly followed. Usually, lasts about three months using & # 39; antiviral work directly.

prevention: avoid the disease is easy, simply does not share personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, pliers, needle and syringe; Make sure the items used in beauty parlors and tattoo, for example, both have been sterilized and used a condom. Moreover, every pregnant woman needs exams before birth to detect pathology.


S & # 39; is: It is an acute infectious disease with fever is not contagious and caused by protozoa Plasmodium – there are more than 100 types -, transmitted by infected female mosquito Anopheles.

Sísymptoms: the first one is fever, 38 ° C or 39 ° C, chills, beat and sweating. It can & # 39; & # 39 b happen; cyclic way, going back and forth every three days, roughly. Prior to this, it is common for patients to feel sick, tired and lack of & # 39; appetite. In severe form can & # 39; a prostration, sensory alteration, cutting & # 39; breathing or hyperventilation, convulsions, arterial hypotension or shock and haemorrhage.


diagnosis and dealsfor: Treatment carried out with & # 39; selected medicines according to some factors, such as the protozoan species to infect, the severity, the patient's age and associated conditions (eg pregnancy and other health problems).

prevention: m & # 39; there is no vaccine against malaria, but a group & # 39; researchers from the Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapy of & # 39; Federal University & # 39; São Paulo (Unifesp) and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty & # 39; University & # 39; Sao Paulo (USP FCF) are developing to combat forms of malaria b & # 39; greater geographical distribution and prevalence in the Americas, the vivax.

Until then, the important thing is to avoid being gdima mosquito that transmits costs of & # 39; everything.

It is recommended not to issue an afternoon unprotected, wearing clothes & # 39; colored covering the greatest possible length of the body, not tilbesx perfume, apply mosquito repellent to last long and install mosquito net on the bed and screens on windows and doors.

It is also essential to avoid places with & # 39; stagnant water, since that is where mosquitoes breed.


S & # 39; do?é is: ETS is exclusive to humans, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Has different stages (primary, secondary, latent and tertiary) and two kinds: acquired, when transmitted through & # 39; sex without a condom with & # 39; infected person, and congenital, when the baby passes during pregnancy or childbirth.


Sísymptoms: As with hepatitis C, a disease that practically m & # 39; has no symptoms in the primary phase. What can & # 39; wound happens is that arises in the penis, the vulva, or the vagina, the cervix or anus. In most cases, if abrasive, hurt & # 39; or burn and heals itself, so do not go to the doctor.

In the secondary phase, it is common to suffer spots on the body, fever, malaise, pain & # 39; head and bubbles (inflammation of the lymph nodes) are common. The latent, shared recent (within one year after infection) and late (over a year later), is asymptomatic.

In the tertiary, signs created in & # 39; period & # 39; between two and 40 years after infection and include lesions in & # 39; various organs and tissues, which can generate madness, aortic aneurysm and arthritis , among other diseases. In the event & # 39; congenital syphilis, risks are abortion, fetal malformation, deafness, blindness, mental deficiency and even death of the baby at birth.

diagnosis and dealsfor: The test for the diagnosis of syphilis is simple and fast. This is done by & # 39; blood tests or laboratory analysis of skin lesions. Once the disease is confirmed, treatment is carried out only with & # 39; penicillin, whose dose depends on the stage.

prevention: He avoided with regular use of condoms.

Now you & # 39; receive notifications from BBC World. Download the new version of our app and activating them not to miss our best content.

Source link