In fact, it sounds good: cars that drive themselves, pick up passengers and transporting them to the place they want. Cars without a driver, without wheel & # 39; the wheel, to protect the environment and reduce the number of & # 39; accidents because, after all, 90 percent & # 39; traffic accidents are due to human error.
Euphoria meets reality
However, some cases show that the new technique is not perfect as it was intended. Also in Germany. Marko Gustke, the German Automobile Federation (VDA), said that, at the moment, users are not willing to spend much on & # 39; security systems. "If everything Packer b & # 39; attractive way, functional, b & # 39; more comfort, b & # 39; appropriate technology package, those vehicles may be best in the market".
Gustke estimates that the first functions will be available the next year. First on the highway: "We need obstacles against collision, share lines in & # 39; right conditions so that the vehicle can & # 39; orient itself and stay". If there is a jam, the computer takes control of the car up to speed & # 39; 60 kilometers per hour. There will also be programs & # 39; assistance to, by 2022, the car can be driven by & # 39; independently on highways. But "we & # 39; away from driving without a driver in city centers", to highlight Gustke.
The United States at the forefront
The autonomous driving many in the United States came in & # 39; in recent years. There, the safety authority road, NHTSA, wants to launch autonomous cars soon to be completely handled without human intervention in & # 39; certain situations. Google has been testing this technology for some time in & # 39; certain areas allowed for this.
These vehicles are the "& # 39; level 4", on the scale of & # 39; five levels & # 39; autonomous driving. The fifth level, which dominates the computer is supposed to drive in all traffic situations and without human intervention, remain & # 39; pure fiction.
From a driver for a mere observer?
The "level 1" refers to the car to work more without automation and has only & # 39; simple security systems. In the "level 2", the semi-autonomous car already has ferry and parking attendants and also assume driving duties. In "Level 3" driving is already quite automated. The car control driving, but only if the technology works completely. If, for example, storms & # 39; snow or heavy rain that leaves the camera and the radar outside the action, the system tell people to take control.
But precisely this level is problematic because "people are not designed to be permanently on alert", says the psychologist of & # 39; engineer Mark Vollrath. The automated driving makes the driver bored and do other things. Furthermore, the distribution of tasks is not entirely clear. "The driver knows x & # 39; making the vehicle and x & # 39; it should do?" Calls Vollrath.
The psychologist found that the reaction time is extended by & # 39; significantly when people just observe for a long time. F & # 39; extreme situations, even experienced drivers had problems. "Here we had almost three times more accidents than with & # 39; manual drivers," he says.
Driver and vehicle liability
Insurers consider this aspect is an unacceptable risk. So, need a clear division of tasks between the driver and the technical at all.
A position supported by Udo di Fabio, Commission President Ethics Automation and interconnected Driving federal government. In 2017, the Commission produced 20 thesis to serve as a guide for the technical implementation. Then be defined and identified by & # 39; clearly, f & # 39; any situation, who is responsible for driving, the human or the computer. "When the vehicle is running, the man m & # 39; must have more responsibility", emphasizes di Fabio, exjuez the German Constitutional Court.
There is much confusion in & # 39; & # 39 event, incident. "If the driver must monitor the technical, then we deal with the complicated issue of & # 39; responsibility when things go wrong", he adds. Who should pay damages in & # 39; & # 39 case, an accident? "If you drive completely automatically, the responsibility lies & # 39; on the manufacturer or programmer, but not on the person inside the car", explains to Di Fabio.