IT was in 1969 that Neil Armstrong took his famous "small step for man" who ended the race & # 39; America in the Moon.
almost half a century now, NASA has promised to return its astronauts to the lunar surface by the end of 2020, in preparation for a trip to distant Mars.
But to reach that next frontier, 34 million miles away, the main space agency in the world has achieved the help of & # 39; philosophy student from the University & # 39; Glasgow to happen.
Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, press on the Moon by Neil Armstrong Pic: NASA
New Program & # 39; PhD will see that the student develop the philosophical understanding of risk required to send women and men back to the moon, and this time to stay there.
READ MORE: The head of & # 39; the agency & # 39;
The program, which is currently in the final stages of & # 39; receiving backing from bodies & # 39; funding of government research UK, will join with NASA to analyze the way they build up its security reports and causality philosophy backing.
Dr. Neil McDonnell, who will oversee the new PhD in Philosophy & # 39; the Safety Engineering, was asked to visit the the last year space agency to see x & # 39; can & # 39; contribute to their latest projects.
He said: "The causation is something that philosophers take them much thought, why not & # 39; there is no feed in the world that can & # 39; see under a microscope called" causation ".
"So the question we ask is, we are always right when we say that the rock climb cause breakage & # 39; the window? There is a concept of & # 39; causation there that we need to analyze and understand how properly. "
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"Until recently, NASA had made barely a peep or attempt to travel to the moon by 1972, and one of the reasons that have not proved it because there was a resolution passed in the States said they could not send astronauts space unless there is a risk. "
He added: "Well, of course m & # 39; there is no risk."
Dr. Neil McDonnell
Disasters like the famous Space Space Challenger explosion in 1986 have been approved for safe boarding before the failed component.
Cases & # 39; security are always put to new expeditions, and can be explored later to understand what went wrong.
Dr McDonnell added: "We know they're using a very old theories & # 39; causality and logic, then what we need to do is to understand what you are using now, and know what current theories of philosophy are better than the old stuff . "
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The student & # 39; University & # 39; Glasgow will spend six months in the center & # 39; NASA research in & # 39; Langley, Virginia, analyze reports on safety & # 39; previous missions, as well as the time in Scotland to explore the metaphysics and epistemology needed to combine complex and aerospace engineering.
The student then uses the philosophy to understand why the rockets sometimes go wrong, and do what Dr. McDonnell calls contribution "useful and serious" to the risky venture of NASA to establish a permanent base on the moon.
President Donald Trump endorsed the campaign & # 39; & # 39 New Exploration in, in December 2017, claiming it was a chance "to bring back knowledge and new opportunities in the World".
The first phase will involve putting human beings in lunarja orbit by 2023, and landing on the surface by the end of 2020.
The change is among fierce competition from Russia, China and India in space exploration, as well as the private sector.