The Mission Control Laboratory & # 39; the Jet Propulsion & # 39; NASA exploded in & # 39; of & # 39 aplause, celebration and cheers after confirming the touchdown. The landing was watched around the world and even broadcast live on the tower of the Stock Market & # 39; Nasdaq in Times Square of & # 39; New York City.
During conference & # 39; the picture & # 39; NASA after the landing, the astronauts at the International Space Station called to congratulate to the mission team and said they "got a goose throat" watching the coverage.
"Today, we landed with & # 39; & # 39 success in; Mars for the eighth time in human history", said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. "Insight will study the interior of & # 39; Mars and will have learned a valuable science as we prepare to Shifting astronauts to the Moon and later to Mars. This accomplishment represents the wisdom of the American and international partners our, and serves as evidence of dedication and the perseverance of our team. the best NASA is yet to come, and come soon. "
Bridenstine said Vice President Mike Pence called to congratulate to the whole team.
To reach Mars, made 301 223 981 miles Insight b & # 39; maximum speed & # 39; 6,200 miles per hour in space, followed by two satellites cubes. The spacecraft & # 39; small size, called Marco, is the first satellite cube that fly to deep space. Marco shared data insight when he entered the Martian atmosphere for landing.
"We've studied Mars from orbit and face 1965, to learn about the weather, the atmosphere, geology and surface chemistry". "Now we will ultimately explore Mars inside and deepen our understanding of our neighbor's land as NASA prepares to send human explorers deeper into the solar system."
The first images taken by Insight includes dust cover still on the lens, which will be lifted this week. The black pieces are dust, and a rock in the foreground left. On the right side there is a Footpad & # 39; the arter.
"While most of the country was enjoying Thanksgiving with family and their friends, the Insight team has been occupied made the final preparations for landing & # 39; Monday." JPL said Tom Hoffman, the project manager Insight. "The landing on Mars is hard and takes a lot of personal sacrifices, such as missing the traditional middle & # 39; Thanksgiving, but we Insight b & # 39; success is well worth the extraordinary effort."
only 40% of the missions sent to the Red Planet by any agency were & # 39; success. Part of this is due to the thin atmosphere Marciana, which is only 1% of the World, so m & # 39; there is nothing to undermine something that is trying to get on the surface.
Like the Phoenix spacecraft, Insight had a parachute and retro rockets to lower its descent from the atmosphere, and suspended three feet from a thief assorbu get the next shock on the face.
But engineers prepared the spacecraft to the ground during dust storm if necessary.
About 20 minutes before landing, Insight separated from the cruise stage that helped bring the way to Mars and resorted to position itself for entry into the atmosphere.
At 2: 47 p.m. ET, started the entry phase, descent and landing, and Insight entered the atmosphere at 12,300 mph. The maximum heat shielding heat reached 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit two minutes later. This is where the intense heat caused a temporary drop in radio signal from the craft.
Then, put the parachute, separated from engine heat shield, deployed three feet and activated radar to detect how the ground. After receiving that signal radar, is separated from the rest of the shell and parachute, by deciding the machines & # 39; its descent known as retrorockets to help it further reduce.
B & # 39; as ballet, Insight conducted gravity turns to ensure that Lander was in the correct position before touching. Decreased until it reached 5 mph consistently. Then, next to 2:54 p.m. ET.
Just before 3 p.m. ET, Insight sent a signal to scientists on Earth know that it is alive and well.
"We hit the Martian atmosphere at 12,300 mph, and the whole sequence adjacent to the surface has only 6½ minutes," said Hoffman. "During that short period & # 39; time, Insight had run b & # 39; independently decades & # 39; operations and make flawless – and by all indications, this is exactly what they did spacecraft our. "
Bruce Banerdt of JPL, the principal investigator of & # 39; Insight, said, "It has been taken over ten years to Insight from concept to spacecraft closer to Mars – and even longer since it was first inspired to try out this type of & # 39; mission. After landing, we need to be patient science begins. "
S & # 39; will happen after
The scientific mission & # 39; & # 39 two years; Insight will not start immediately. It will take two or three months to the robotic arm places the mission instruments on the surface. Meanwhile, the mission scientists will see what can & # 39; seen from the perspective of & # 39; land and monitor the environment. Data science is not expected until March.
Later Monday, the mission scientists should be able to confirm that the solar arrays of space emerged.
"We operated with usual, so getting out and operate the arrays is a big deal," said Hoffman. "With arrays that provide energy, we need to start the operations of cool science. We start looking carefully what is inside & # 39; Mars for the first time".
Insight landed in & # 39; Elysium Planitia, called "the greatest park on Mars" by astronomers. Because it will not change on the surface, the site & # 39; landing was an important determination. This place is open, flat, safe and boring, which is what scientists want to stationary mission & # 39; years.
Insight will draw the solar panels and its robotic arm and will study the planet from its parking place. It is along the Martian equator, bright and warm enough to operate the solar array & # 39; landing throughout the year.
The pool & # 39; geophysical instruments on Insight sounds like a bag & # 39; doctor, and gave Mars first "control" her since it was formed. Together, these instruments will take measurements of vital signs & # 39; Mars, such as pulse, temperature and their reflections – which translates to an internal activity such as seismology and wobble of the Earth bħax- sun and moons tug on Mars.
These instruments include Seismic Experiment for Internal structures to investigate x & # 39; cause seismic waves on Mars the Heat Flow and Package & # 39; Physical Properties to fill & # 39; below the surface and determine the heat emanating from the planet and Experiment & # 39; of & # 39 structure; Rotation and Interior to use radios to study the planet's core.
"Landing was exciting, but I'm looking forward to drilling," said Banerdt. "When the first images coming down, the engineering teams and of our science will hit the ground and start to plan where to deploy our science instruments. Within two or three months, the branch will use the main science instruments, Structure (SEIS) and Heat Flow and Package & # 39; Physical properties (HP3). "
Meanwhile, Marco ended the mission. But it shows that the cubes can live long trek satellites in deep space.
"Every landing & # 39; Mars is daunting, but now b & # 39; Insight b & # 39; security on the surface, we make unique type & # 39; science in & # 39; Mars", said director of & # 39; JPL Michael Watkins. "The experimental CubeSats Marcos also opened a new door for smaller planetary spacecraft. The success & # 39; these two unique mission is a tribute to the hundreds of & # 39; engineers and scientists b & # 39; talent to put -ġenju and their work to make this great day. "